- 1 in 1,000 births.
- Bilateral in 50% of cases.
- Demonstration that the sole of the foot is not perpendicular to the lower leg bones.
- In >50% of cases the condition is isolated.
- Chromosomal abnormalities: common finding in trisomies 18 and 13.
- Commonly associated with prolonged oligohydramnios, brain abnormalities, spina bifida, skeletal and neuromuscular disorders.
- More than 250 genetic syndromes include clubfoot as one component.
- Detailed ultrasound examination.
- Non-isolated cases: invasive testing and array.
- Isolated: standard follow-up.
- Standard obstetric care and delivery.
- Isolated: good prognosis.
- In 90% of cases good long-term function is achieved by manipulation and serial application of casts, supported by limited operative intervention.
- Surgery is necessary in about 10% of cases and in one third more than one operation is needed.
- One sibling with clubfoot: 3%.
- Parent and one child with clubfoot: 25%.