- 1 in 6,000 births.
- Multiseptated, multicystic irregular mass, which is usually located on the neck (75%), axillary region (20%), chest wall, abdominal wall and extremities (5%); in <1% of cases the tumor is in the mesentery or retroperitoneum.
The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes is not increased.
- Detailed ultrasound examination.
- In case of cervical and thoracic lymphangioma, there is an increased risk of central venous compression leading to hydrops and esophageal compression resulting in polyhydramnios.
- Ultrasound scans every 2-3 weeks to monitor the size of the tumor and assess amniotic fluid volume. Amniodrainage may be necessary if there is polyhydramnios and cervical shortening.
- Place: hospital with neonatal intensive care and pediatric surgery.
- Time: 38 weeks.
- Method: cesarean section with EXIT procedure if there is polyhydramnios and hyperextension of the neck due to a large cervical tumor.
- Prognosis is favourable, unless there is associated cardiac failure, hydrops or high airway compression.
- Some mesenchymal lesions may partially regress spontaneously after birth. The treatment of choice is surgical excision.
- No increased risk of recurrence.